1701 ～ 1714年 War of the Spanish Succession “France : Louis XIV ( 1638-1715 ) × Habsburg : Karl VI ( 1685-1740 )”
● Cremona governance countries España ( 1513 ～ 1524, 1526 ～ 1701 ) – France ( 1701 ～ 1702 ) – Republik Österreich / Habsburg ( 1707 ～ 1848 )
● Casa Savoia : 1713年 Regno di Sicilia – 1720年 Regno di Sardegna / Torino – 1848年 The First War of Independence – 1859年 The Second War of Independence – 1866年 The Third War of Independence
● Luigi Rodolfo Boccherini ( 1743-1805 ), 1743 Lucca / 1757 Vienna “The court employed” / 1761 Madrid / 1771 String Quintet Op. 11 No. 5 ( G 275 ) : Italian cellist and composer
Marie Antoinette ( 1755-1793.10.16 ) 1770年 She married Louis-Auguste ( 1754-1793.1.21 ) / ” Louis XVI ( 1774 ) “ at the age of 14. 1793年 ” Louis XVI ” ( 1774 ) / Louis-Auguste ( 1754-1793.1.21 )
● Johann Peter Salomon ( 1745-1815 ), Bonn / Prussia / ca.1780 London / 1791 ～ 1792, 1794 ～ 1795 Franz Joseph Haydn : Violinist
□ François-Xavier Tourte ( 1747-1835), Paris : Bow maker
● Carl Stamitz ( 1745-1801 ), Mannheim / 1762 Mannheim palace orchestra / 1770 Paris / Praha, London : Violinist
● Johann Anton Stamitz ( 1754 – ‥ ), Mannheim / 1770 Paris / 1782 ～ 1789 Versailles / ‘ 1798‥1809 Paris ‘ : Violinist
● Bernhard Heinrich Romberg ( 1767-1841 ), “The Münster Court Orchestra” / 1790 Bonn “The Court Orchestra” / He lengthened the cello’s fingerboard and ‘Flattened’ the side under the C string : German cellist and composer
● Rodolphe Kreutzer ( 1766-1831 ),Versailles / 1803 Wien “Kreutzer Sonata ” Ludwig van Beethoven 1770-1827, Paris 1795 ～ 1826 ‘Conservatoire de Paris’ – 1796年 Caprices – 1807 comprises 40 pieces – “42 Études ou Caprices” / Genève, Swiss : Violinist
● Pierre Baillot ( 1771-1842 ), Paris : Violinist
● Pierre Rode ( 1774-1830 ), Bordeaux / 1787 Paris / 1804 Saint Petersburg, Moscow / 1812 Wien ” Ludwig van Beethoven 1770-1827 Violinsonate Nr. 10 in G-Dur, Op. 96 ” / 1814 ～ 1819年 Berlin, “24 capricci” / 1830 Lot-et-Garonne : Violinist
● August Duranowski ( ca.1770-1834 ), Warsaw / Paris / 1790 Brussels / Strasbourg : Violinist
● Ignaz Schuppanzigh ( 1776-1830 ), Vienna / He gave violin lessons to Beethoven, and they remained friends until Beethoven’s death. : “Schuppanzigh Quartet” : Violinist
Marble was worked mainly with stone tools. Although no direct evidence is available for the toolkit of the Cycladic craftsman, modern research in combination with experimental archaeology has shown that most tools were probably made of emery. A piece of this heavy and dense stone – which abounds in Naxos – can be easily turned into a mallet (for shaping the figure) simply by making its edge pointed or sharp. Emery was also probably used as a drill (to carve and pierce specific anatomical details such as the eye, ear, navel, and loin cavities, or repair holes), as an engraving tool (for incised details) or as a surface polisher. Emery powder was very effective as an abrasive for the initial working of the marble.
Obsidian – widely available on Melos – and flint may have also been employed in marble carving. When shaped into blades, those materials can be used as engraving tools or even for erasing the traces of smoothing on the surface of the marble; in the form of small pointy flakes they become particularly effective drills. Finally, Theran pumice soaked in water is an excellent material for the final polishing of the surface, and the same is true for sand mixed with water. Bronze chisels could have been used for greater precision and speed in making the cut-outs on more complex figurines, such as the harpists, although their poor durability (due to the high copper-content) as well as the high value of metals in that period, probably made metal stone-working tools less common.
As we can deduce from the few unfinished figurines that have been discovered so far, the first step in the process was to roughly shape the raw piece of marble into a figure by the impact of a mallet. Emery powder was then used to abrade the surface until it obtained the desired shape and size. Once the desired shape was achieved, the surface was smoothed carefully before the fine work of carving the details started. At the end, the figurine was polished to a high degree that is still amazing. Traces of horizontal, vertical or diagonal smoothing are very often visible on the surface of marble figurines. Sometimes, we can see the marks left by the tool used to level the contours of the leg cleft on “canonical” figurines. Traces of repairs are also discernible in some examples.
The creation of a Cycladic figurine was based on strict rules and a detailed system of proportions, which required precise measurements and considerable skill in application. Therefore, it was most likely the work of specialized craftsmen, who probably passed on their knowledge to younger artisans only after the latter had spent a long period of time working as apprentices. Some scholars have attempted to identify individual “artists” or workshops by distinguishing groups of figurines with similar characteristics. Those “artists” (or workshops) have been conventionally named after the museum or the city which hosts characteristic works by them, after the excavator who brought them to light, or after the collector who possesses them (e.g. the Berlin Master, the Doumas Master, the Goulandris Master, etc.). Other scholars, however, reject these attributions as anachronistic and believe that the similarities reflect chronological or geographical proximity. One should bear in mind that the available evidence for the techniques employed in Cycladic marble-carving is very fragmentary and our knowledge stems almost exclusively from careful observations of the figurines themselves. So far, no workshop has been discovered in a Cycladic settlement and the organization of the production remains entirely unknown.
Direct evidence for the working of bronze in the Cyclades is limited but instructive. Remains of hearths and crucibles of the Early Cycladic III period have been found at Kastri on Syros, together with slags and stone moulds which show that metal smiths knew how to cast bronze and produced both cast and hammered objects. The spread of metallurgy in the Aegean during the third millennium BC gave impetus to crafts such as building, shipbuilding, carpentry, and the minor arts; at the same time, it promoted trade and contributed to the development of social stratification. Mainly, however, it brought important changes in the techniques of warfare. Bronze weapons become relatively common in the Cyclades in the later stages of the Early Cycladic II period and this seems to be related to the disturbances and upheavals that are observed in the Aegean during the transition to the Early Cycladic III period. According to one theory, this turmoil was due to conflicts between local populations for the control of sources of raw materials, such as copper, or access to networks trafficking metals that were more difficult to obtain, such as tin.
Antonio Stradivari made his violins by utilising a thick ca.14 mm wooden mould or ‘form’, to which the four C-bout corner blocks, together with the top and bottom blocks, were lightly glued, and around which the thin lengths of rib were shaped and then strongly glued to the blocks. Simplistically, once all the glue had dried, the ‘garland’ of blocks and ribs could be carefully detached from the inner mould, and the front and back plates could then be attached to the garland to create the soundbox. Although Stradivari’s moulds, made of walnut wood, have varying lengths, widths and proportions, these variations are often by no more than a few millimetres and sometimes the difference between a particular measurement on one mould and the same measurement on another is just one millimetre; for example, the three bout-width measurements of the P mould, and those of the PG mould, are identical, while the body lengths differ by just one millimetre: P mould 343.5 mm; PG mould 344.5 mm (Stewart Pollens’s measurements).
Almost all the moulds bear identifying letters, inked or incised in block capitals: for example, the letters P, S, and T, G, PG, and MB. Because there are so few extant documents known to be written in Stradivari’s hand, it is not certain which, if any, of these mould letters were drawn by him. Some of the moulds have dates, also inked or incised into the surface of the wood: the mould marked SL is dated November 9, 1691 (incised), and one of the two moulds marked S is dated September 20, 1703. The two B moulds are dated June 3, 1692 and December 6, 1692 (both incised), while the PG mould is dated June 4, 1689 (also incised).
弦楽器の音響メカニズムは難解ですが、これらを少し読み解くとすれば‥ まず、上図の点 P が “オールド・ヴァイオリン “の裏板にみられる『 セントラル・ピン 』とほぼ一致するという状況証拠から、点 P を 裏板におけるつりあいの中心点として印されていると考えることができます。
Jacob Stainer ( ca.1617-1683 ) Violin, Absam ( Tirol )
Underneath the parchment covering the center joint of the back of the violin by Jacob Stainer, five marking points are hidden.Their distance from the lower end of the body can be measured precisely.